Gross Domestic Product (Measuring Economic Activity)

  • GDP is the total output of all economic activity in a country over a given period and a country’s GDP will include domestic output by foreign owned firms.
  • GDP has a mathematical relationship with the measures of gross national income (GNI) and net national income (NNI)
    • GNI = the sum of all incomes for residents of a country regardless of the location of the assets of these residents
    • NNI = GNI less depreciation of physical capital

GDP + interest, dividend, rent and profit abroad = GNI

GNI – physical capital depreciation = NNI

  • Expenditure Approach to GDP

GDP = Personal Consumption + Investment + Government Consumption + (Exports – Imports)

GDP = C + I + G + (X-M)

  • GDP at Factor Cost = Expenditure Approach GDP – Indirect Taxes + Subsidies
  • GDP does not include items such as: government transfer payments, gifts, unpaid household activities, trades, second hand transactions (ex. selling used goods on Ebay), and transactions involving illegal goods.
  • Nominal GDP = GDP in current prices
    • A price deflator must be applied to the current GDP in order to compare current GDP to the GDP of a prior year.