Comprehensive Income

Total Comprehensive Income reflects the changes in a company’s equity during the accounting period which does not represent contributions by or distributions to the company’s owners.

Total Comprehensive Income = Net Income + / – Other Comprehensive Income (OCI)

OCI = Ending Shareholders’ Equity – Beginning Shareholders’ Equity – Net Income + Declared Dividends

Reporting Comprehensive Income

Firms can report comprehensive income below net income on the income statement, as an extra column on the statement of changes in shareholders’ equity, or through a statement of comprehensive income.

Items Under OCI Category

U.S. GAAP has four items that fall under the OCI category:

  • Unrealized Gains/Losses on Certain Investment Securities: These are gains or losses from intercorporate investments classified as available for sale (AFS). The unrealized gain/loss in the accounting period does not affect net income for the period, but does impact shareholders equity as part of OCI.
  • Unrealized Gains/Losses on Hedging Derivatives: A change in the fair value of derivatives contracts used for hedging is not part of net income, but is applied to equity through OCI.
  • Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments: When a company consolidates foreign subsidiaries using the current rate method, the gain or loss resulting from the foreign exchange adjustments is reported as part of OCI.
  • Pension Liability Adjustments: Actuarial gains and losses related to defined benefit retirement plans are recorded as part of OCI.
Finance Train Subscription

Unlock full access to Finance Train and see the entire library of member-only content and resources.