- Equity Analysis Part 3 - Introduction
- Free Cash Flow Valuation
- One, Two, and Three Stage FCF Calculations
- Share Price Multiple Methods in Equity Valuation
- Price to Earnings (P/E) Ratio (Leading P/E and Trailing P/E)
- Price to Book (P/B) Value Ratio and Equity Valuation
- Price to Sales (P/S) Ratio
- Price to Cash Flow Ratios
- Enterprise Value (EV) to EBITDA
- Dividend Yield for Valuing Equity
- Residual Income (RI) Valuation Model
Enterprise Value (EV) to EBITDA
- Enterprise Value (EV) = the total market value (MV) of the firm.
EV = MV of debt + MV preferred equity + MV common equity - Cash and investments
Cash and investments are netted out because these items reduce the net cost of purchasing the company.
- Enterprise value is a commonly used valuation perspective in M\&A and investment banking transaction analysis.
- EBITDA = earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization
EBITDA = Net Income + Taxes + Interest Expense + Depreciation + Amortization
EBITDA is commonly used to approximate operational cash flows that are available to suppliers of debt and equity capital
EV/EBITDA ratio is done on a total and not per share basis as it reflects value for all suppliers of capital.
Positives of EV/EBITDA
Can be used when comparing firms with different degrees of financial leverage because the P/E ratio reflects value after interest has been paid.
The ratio will help make companies with high, but varying degrees of depreciation and amortization more comparable.
EBITDA is less likely to be negative than earnings.
Negatives of EV/EBITDA
EBITDA can overstate operational cash flows in instances where working capital is growing.
EBITDA will not reflect variances in revenue recognition practices across companies, and this impacts cash flow from operations.
EBITDA is not as suitable for total firm valuation as Free Cash Flow to the Firm.
Justifiable EV/EBITDA ratio: as FCFF rises, the multiple will increase; as WACC rises, the multiple will decrease.
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