- Sources of Return from Investing in a Bond
- How to Calculate Current Yield
- How to Calculate Yield to Maturity
- Bond Equivalent Yield Convention
- Yield to Maturity (YTM) Approximation Formula
- YTM and Reinvestment Risk
- Factors Affecting Reinvestment Risk
- Calculate Bond-Equivalent Yield of Annual-Pay Bonds
- How to Calculate Yield to Call of a Bond
- Cash Flow Yield
- Bootstrapping Spot Rate Curve (Zero Curve)
- How to Price a Bond Using Spot Rates (Zero Curve)
- Nominal Spread
- Z-Spread: Definition and Calculation
- Option-adjusted Spreads (OAS)
- What are Forward Rates?
- How to Calculate Forward Rates from Spot Rates?
- How to Value a Bond Using Forward Rates
How to Calculate Yield to Call of a Bond
For callable bonds that are likely to be called before their maturity, it is more useful to calculate yield to call instead of yield to maturity. The formula and steps to calculate yield to call are exactly the same as how we calculate yield to maturity, i.e., you calculate the discount rate that makes the present value of the future bond payments (coupons and par) equal to the market price of the bond plus any accrued interest. There are two deviations from the standard formula:
- For calculating yield to call the bond price will be taken as the price at which the bond is called back.
- The maturity will be the date with expected call date.
Bonds will have a call schedule which will specify how much the issuer will pay on the date the bond is called. Investors can calculate various types of yield to call such as yield to first call or yield to next call.
Let’s take an example:
Consider a $1,000 par 8% coupon, 5 years maturity bond selling at $800. The bond is callable and the first call date is 2 years from now at a call price of $1010.
The cash flows from the bond upto call date are the coupon payments every 6 months, and the call price after two years. So, the yield to call will be the interest rate that will make the present value of these cash flows equal to the bond price of $800.
Assuming semi-annual coupon payments, the yield to call will be calculated as follows:
$800 = 40/(1+y) + 40/(1+y)^2 + 40/(1+y)^2 + 1050/(1+y)^2
Solving for y, we get:
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