The most comprehensive educational resources for finance

## Call Option Payoff

A call option is the right, but not the obligation, to buy an asset at a prespecified price on, or before, a prespecified date in the future. An investor can take a long or a short position in a call option. Long Call Consider a call option with a strike price of \$105 and a

## 6 Rules for Your Startup Company

Last year an average of 514,000 new American startup firms launched every month. However, statistics show three out of four of these companies will fail. Following these rules will give yours the best chance of beating the odds. Think Passion, Not Profit It takes the average startup company between three and five years to become

## Present Value and Future Value of Uneven Cash Flows – Using BA II Plus Calculator

We have looked at the PV/FV calculations for single sums of money and for annuities in which all the cash flows are equal. However, there may be an investment, where the cash flows are not equal. We will now look at how to calculate the PV and FV of such an uneven series of cash

## PRM Exam 1 – Sample Questions

We recently released our new PRM Exam 1 Practice Question Bank for students preparing for PRM Exam 1. Some of you asked us that you wanted to see a sample of questions provided in the practice question bank. So, here it is. We picked up a few questions from the question bank that broadly represent

## Operational Risk Losses in Practice

Over the past few years, operational risk has gained much attention in the financial services industry. This is partially because many of the largest losses in the financial industry have their roots in the failure of operational risk. As the financial technology becomes more and more advanced, and the industry moves further towards globalization, the

## Bond Duration and Convexity Simplified – Part 2 of 2

As we learnt in part 1, the duration, as measured by the slope of the curve, changes as yields change. The slope of the curve is steeper (and the duration is larger) at low yield levels, and becomes flatter (and the duration becomes smaller) at high yield levels. This property is called convexity. Convexity is

## Bond Duration and Convexity Simplified – Part 1 of 2

While analyzing bonds, it is important to apply the concepts of duration and convexity. Duration has been an excellent tool to forecast the approximate price change of a bond or portfolio of bonds. However, with larger yield changes and securities with embedded options, duration becomes less accurate at estimating price changes. Duration can be combined

## How to Study for PRMIA Mathematics Section

The exam II of the PRM Certification conducted by PRMIA is about mathematical foundations of risk management. As the risk management profession becomes more important and dependent on quantitative models, it is essential for a risk manager to possess adequate quantitative skills and knowledge of mathematics concepts as applicable to risk management. In the overall

## Calculator for PRM Exam

PRM exam is one of the most competitive and globally recognized risk certification exams. It’s an online exam that you can write at any Pearson Vue centre. Even though the questions require use of a calculator you are not allowed to carry a physical calculator with you. Instead, an online scientific calculator, Texas Instrument TI308XS,

## A Review of PRM Handbook

The Professional Risk Manager (PRM) exam is one of the most prestigious risk management exams offered by PRMIA, the Professional Risk Manager’s International Association. It’s 4-part exam which can be given in any Pearson Vue testing centre. Every year PRMIA publishes the syllabus and guidelines for all the four parts of the exam. As a